Apache HTTP Server, product of the Apache Software Foundation is a free software/open source web server for Unix-like systems, Windows, Novell NetWare and other platforms. Apache is notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web , and continues to be the most popular web server in use, serving as the de facto reference platform against which other web servers are designed and judged. Apache is primarily used to serve static and dynamic content on the World Wide Web. Many web applications are designed expecting the environment and features that Apache provides. Apache is the web server component of the popular LAMP web server application stack, alongside Linux, MySQL, and the PHP / Perl / Python programming languages.
A blog (short for web log) is a web application where entries are made and displayed in a reverse chronological order. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of most early blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), or audio (podcasting), and are part of a wider network of social media. Here are some exemples of free blog softwares : WordPress , DotClear , Blog:CMS , ...
The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard protocol for interfacing external application software with an information server, commonly a web server. This allows the server to pass requests from a client web browser to the external application. It's generally a CGI script that deals with the input of a form on a Web page and return the output from the application to the web browser.
A Content Management System (CMS) is a software system for organizing and facilitating collaborative creation of documents and publishing websites. A web content management system is often used to manage and control a large, dynamic collection of web material ( HTML documents and their associated images). A CMS facilitates document editing. It offers standard visual templates that can be automatically applied to new and existing content, creating one central place to change that look across a group of content on a site. Most CMS software include WYSIWYG editing tools allowing non-technical individuals to create and edit content. Active CMS solutions usually receive regular updates that include new feature sets and keep the system up to current web standards. The most commons free CMS are : Joomla! , Spip , Drupal , BitFlux , eZPublish , Plume , Typo3 , Postnuke ...
Short for Domain Name System (or Service or Server), an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.example.com might translate to 18.104.22.168. The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one DNS server doesn't know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one, and so on, until the correct IP address is returned. The BIND DNS server is a very popular and free DNS server. When setting up a new web site one needs to register a DNS name at a DNS registry. One site can have serveral DNS names, also called server aliases.
FTP or file transfer protocol is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol (such as the Internet or an intranet). There are two computers involved in an FTP transfer : a server and a client. FTP is most commonly used to upload a file defining a Web page to a Web server using the Internet. A secure variante of FTP using SSL or TLS is FTPS. To access a FTP server, one uses a FTP client software (with a graphical interface or directly through command lines) such as gFTP or Filezilla . They both also support the SCP protocol.
HA clusters are often used for critical databases, file sharing on a network, business applications, and customer services such as electronic commerce websites.
HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document — by denoting certain text as headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on — and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of labels (known as tags), surrounded by less-than and greater-than signs. Technically is HTML an application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). The HTML development has been stopped since 1999. It's successor, the XHTML , is an application of the Extensible Markup Language ( XML ).
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a method used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web . Its original purpose was to provide a way to publish and retrieve HTML pages. HTTP is a request/response protocol between clients and servers . The originating client, such as a web browser, initiates a request by establishing a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection to a particular port on a remote host (port 80 by default). The destination HTTP server listening on that port, which stores resources such as HTML files and images, waits for the client to send a request message. HTTPS (with S for secure) is the sercure variation of HTTP that use an added encryption layer of SSL or TLS to protect the traffic.
The Internet Message Access Protocol, commonly known as IMAP, is an application layer Internet protocol that allows a local client to access e-mail on a mail server without dowloading it. In other words, it permits a "client" email program to access remote message stores as if they were local. That's why email stored on an IMAP server can be manipulated from a desktop computer at home, a workstation at the office, and a notebook computer while traveling, without the need to transfer messages or files back and forth between these computers. IMAP's ability to access messages from more than one computer has become extremely important as reliance on electronic messaging and use of multiple computers increase. Think about webmail , for instance, that allows one to read his e-mails in a cybercafé . IMAP is using the TCP port 143. IMAPS (IMAP over SSL) gives a secure access to the server via SSL . It is using the TCP port 993.
The acronym LAMP refers to a solution stack of software programs, commonly open-source programs, used together to run dynamic Web sites on servers. The original combination of these technologies is as follows: Linux , referring to the operating system ; Apache , the Web server ; MySQL , the database management system (or database server) ; PHP , the programming language. More recently, the P has come to refer frequently to Perl or Python as alternate programming languages. At all2all, standard LAMP systems also feature PostgreSQL as alternative database.
Mailman is a package for managing electronic mailing lists on a server . It is free software, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License . Mailman's chief distinction is its easy-to-use Web interface for list administration. Mailman is written in the Python programming language. It can work with any common Unix mail server software, including Postfix , Sendmail and qmail. The integration with the free mail server software exim (which is used by the Debian GNU/Linux by default) is probably best: using special configuration rules, exim knows which addresses are used by Mailman and automatically forwards all mails which are handled by Mailman to Mailman, without having to set customized aliases for each individual mailing list, as it is custom with most or all other mail servers. User features include the built-in archiving of messages, automatic processing of bounce messages, digest mode, and spam filtering. By default, Mailman sends out a reminder message on the first of the month (local time) to all subscribers (see : http://www.gnu.org/software/mailman ).
Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. Structurally, Perl is based on the brace-delimited block style of AWK and C, and was widely adopted for its strengths in string processing, and lack of the arbitrary limitations of many scripting languages at the time. Perl has been used since the early days of the Web to write CGI scripts. It is known as one of "the three Ps" (along with Python and PHP), the most popular dynamic languages for writing Web applications (which now also include Ruby). It is also an integral component of the popular LAMP solution stack for web development. Large projects written in Perl include Slash, Bugzilla, TWiki and Movable Type.
PHP is a reflective programming language designed for producing dynamic web pages. The project's name originally stood for Personal Home Page; it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP was written by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994 and is mainly used in server-side scripting. PHP generally runs on a web server , taking PHP code as its input and creating Web pages as output. PHP is free . It can be deployed on most web servers and on almost every OS platform free of charge. The PHP Group also provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use. PHP is commonly used as the P in the LAMP software bundle alongside Linux, Apache and MySQL.
A podcast is a digital media file , or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet. In other words, a podcast is a collection of audio or video files residing at a unique web feed address. People can "subscribe" to this feed by submitting the feed address to an aggregator. When new "episodes" become available in the podcast they will be automatically downloaded to the users computer. Though podcasters' web sites may also offer direct download or streaming of their content, a podcast is distinguished from other digital media formats by its ability to be syndicated, subscribed to, and downloaded automatically, using an aggregator or feed reader capable of reading feed formats such as RSS (Really Simple Syndication) or Atom.
PostgreSQL is a free software object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), released under a BSD-style license . It offers an alternative to other database systems. Similar to other free software projects such as Apache, GNU/Linux, and MediaWiki, PostgreSQL is not controlled by any single company, but relies on a global community of developers and companies to develop it. PostgreSQL features the ability to define types, but also the ability to fully describe relationships. In PostgreSQL, the database "understood" relationships, and could retrieve information in related tables in a natural way using rules. Tables can be set to inherit their characteristics from a "parent" table. nheritance provides a way to map the features of generalization hierarchies depicted in Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERD) directly into the PostgreSQL database. Phppgadmin is a web application written with PHP to manage the PostgreSQL database.
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RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines or podcasts. An RSS document, which is called a "feed," "web feed," or "channel," contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with their favorite web sites in an automated manner that's easier than checking them manually. RSS content can be read using software called a "feed reader" or an "aggregator." The user subscribes to a feed by entering the feed's link into the reader or by clicking an RSS icon in a browser that initiates the subscription process. The reader checks the user's subscribed feeds regularly for new content, downloading any updates that it finds.
Ruby on Rails is a web application framework, released in 2004, that aims to increase the speed and ease with which database-driven web sites can be created and offers skeleton code frameworks (scaffolding) from the outset. Often shortened to Rails, or RoR, Ruby On Rails is an open source project written in the Ruby programming language and applications using the Rails framework are developed using the Model-View-Controller design pattern. The official web site is : http://www.rubyonrails.org/
The client-server architecture refers to a communication model between softwares. In information technology, a server is an application program that accepts connections in order to service requests by sending back responses. Each instance of the client software can send data requests to one or more connected servers. In turn, the servers can accept these requests, process them, and return the requested information to the client. These days, clients are most often web browsers. Servers typically include web servers, database servers, backup servers, print servers, mail servers, web servers, FTP servers, application servers, DHCP server, DNS server, etc. The client-server connection is established via communication protocols like, for instance, TCP/IP, which is most often used for accessing the Internet.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and its successor, Transport Layer Security (TLS), are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as web browsing, e-mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and other data transfers. There are slight differences between SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0, but the protocol remains substantially the same. The term "SSL" as used here applies to both protocols unless clarified by context.SSL provides endpoint authentication and communications privacy over the Internet using cryptography. Typically, only the server is authenticated while the client remains unauthenticated; this means that the end user can be sure with whom they are communicating. The next level of security—in which both ends of the "conversation" are sure with whom they are communicating—is known as mutual authentication. Mutual authentication requires public key infrastructure (PKI) deployment to clients. SSL is used by numerous e-commerce web sites to secure payments over the Internet. This application also requires to obtain a certificat issued by a certificate authority .
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a technical, Web-related term used to identify a resource over the Internet. Also called "Web address", it provides a means of locating the resource by describing its access mechanism (e.g., its network ‘location’) within a chain of ASCII letters. The idea of a uniform syntax for global identifiers of network-retrievable documents was the core idea of the World Wide Web. More information here : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URL
Revision control, also known as version control and source control (and an aspect of software configuration management), is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information. Changes are usually identified by a number or letter code, termed the "revision number", "revision level", or simply "revision". For example, an initial set of files is "revision 1". When the first change is made, the resulting set is "revision 2", and so on. Each revision is associated with a timestamp and the person making the change. Revisions can be compared, restored, and with some types of files, merged. Read more
Virtualmin is a Webmin module for managing multiple virtual hosts through a single interface on Unix -like systems. It supports the creation and management of Apache virtual hosts, BIND DNS domains, MySQL databases, and mailboxes and aliases with Sendmail or Postfix. Together with the existing Webmin and Usermin modules, Virtualmin offers a total autonomy to administrators of web sites , virtual or dedicated servers who can access all control features and automatically set up user's limits appropriately. These server administrators can also manage the mailboxes and mail aliases via a web interface that is part of the module.
The Webalizer is a GPL application that generates web pages of analysis, from access and usage logs, i.e., a web log analysis software. It is one of the most commonly used web server administration tools. It was initiated by Bradford L. Barrett in 1997. Statistics commonly reported by Webalizer include: hits; visits; referrers; the visitors' countries; and the amount of data downloaded. These statistics can be viewed graphically and presented by different time frames, such as per day, hour, or month.
WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) refers to the set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers. The WebDAV protocol's aim was to make the World Wide Web a readable and writable medium. It provides functionality to create, change and move documents on a remote server (typically a web server or "web share").WebDAV also allows client/server groupware systems to store and fetch objects such as calendar items and address book entries instead of web pages. It enables to share calendar events between Mozilla Sunbird , Apple iCal , Ximian Evolution (see : iCalendar in Wikipedia).
A Webmail refer to the implementation of an e-mail client as a Web application that allows users to access their e-mail through a Web browser, as an alternative to using a desktop-based client such as Microsoft Outlook or Mozilla Thunderbird or Eudora. A webmail client is usually offered by an email service to allow its users to access their mail stored on the service's server from any computer (e.g. in a cybercafé). The word Webmail refer to an email service that is offered through a website, sometimes the only way to users to access their email, and sometimes in addition other methods of making the email available to the user, such as the POP3 or IMAP4 protocols.
Webmin is a easy-to-use system configuration tool for Unix-like systems. It has a web-based graphical user interface for managing web server systems. Webmin is largely based on Perl, and is running as its own process, and web server. It usually uses TCP port 10000 for communicating, and can be configured to use SSL if OpenSSL is installed. It is built around modules, which have an interface to the config files, and an interface to the webmin server. This makes it easy to add new functionality, without too much work. Webmin offers a unique web interface to control a large variety of server applications ( Apache , Postfix , FTP , MySQL , PostgreSQL , BIND , SSH , etc.). Webmin enables the server administrator to easily manage all the users accounts, quotas, repositories, groups and rights. He can access the log files and stop or reboot the system. Due to Webmin's modular design, it would be possible, for anyone who is interested, to write plugins for desktop configuration. Webmin is an open source software released under the BSD license. The two major modules extending the functionality of Webmin are Usermin , designed for general usage tasks, and Virtualmin , which is for giving users visual means of administering web hosting accounts (see : http://www.webmin.com ).
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A web site is a collection of web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on a web server, usually accessible via the Internet. A web page is a document, typically written in HTML , that is almost always accessible via HTTP, a protocol that transfers information from the web server to display in the user's web browser. All publicly accessible websites are seen collectively as constituting the World Wide Web . The pages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called the homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control how the reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different parts of the sites. The web pages can be uploaded via File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to the web server that allows individuals and organizations to provide their own web sites accessible via Internet. One can set up his own web site by himself (with a little understanding of html) or call upon a web-designer to do the job.
The World Wide Web (or the "Web") is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may contain text, images, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks. The Web was created around 1990 by the Englishman Tim Berners-Lee and the Belgian Robert Cailliau working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of Web standards (such as the markup languages in which Web pages are composed), and in recent years has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. The Web is only one application of the Internet amongst others, like emailing, instant messaging, Usenet, etc.
The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML , but also conforms to XML syntax. Whereas HTML is an application of SGML, a very flexible markup language, XHTML is an application of XML, a more restrictive subset of SGML. Because they need to be well-formed, true XHTML documents allow for automated processing to be performed using standard XML tools—unlike HTML, which requires a relatively complex, lenient, and generally custom parser. XHTML can be thought of as the intersection of HTML and XML in many respects, since it is a reformulation of HTML in XML. XHTML 1.1 became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation on May 31, 2001.